The Arctic Star was granted for operational service of any length north of the Arctic Circle (66 degrees, 32’N) from the 3rd September, 1939, to the 8th May, 1945, inclusive. The Arctic Star is intended to commemorate the Arctic Convoys and is designed primarily for the ships of the convoys to North Russia and their Escorts.
The Albert Medal was first instituted by Royal Warrant in 1866. The rationale was to acknowledge those “heroic actions performed by mariners and others to prevent such loss [of lives at sea] and to save lives the lives of those who are in danger of perishing by reason of wrecks and perils of the sea…”
Read about the following medals awarded to New Zealander Alexander Boyle.
1914 – 1915 star, 1914 – 1920 War Medal, 1914-1919 Victory Medal and oak leaf clasp, 1939-1945 Defence Medal, 1939 – 1945 War Medal, King George V Silver Jubilee Medal, US Legion of Merit and the Croix de Guerre.
Read about the various Campaign Stars and the introduction of the Defence Medal. This includes the 1939-45 Star, the Africa Star, the Atlantic Star, the Air Crew Europe Star, the Italy Star, the France and Germany Star, the Pacific Star, the Burma Star, and the Clasps to these Stars.
Originally a Mention in Despatches was the means of brining an individual’s gallantry or good services to the notice of a higher authority and the names were generally embodied in a Commander-in-Chief’s despatch [report] on a particular battle or action or listed at the end of such a report. In 1902 it was decided that the publication of an individual’s name had to be made in the London Gazette to constitute the award.